READ THIS . . . to benefit from Barbara's research and experience.
You could spend DAYS searching the Web for
relevant information related to publishing POD and eBooks. But if you
start with the resources in this article and on the
T/C page of my Writing/Publishing
department, you will save countless hours of research time and be connected to some of the best websites and author
blogs—while also learning how to save money by working with freelance providers in Barbara's network.
Historical Note about Amazon/Booklocker Lawsuit
Everything in the self-publishing industry changed in April 2008 when Amazon announced that in order for self-published authors to sell POD
and regularly-printed books on its site, independent authors and publishers
had to print their books using its BookSurge service. But Amazon's
attempt to monopolize the entire POD industry failed when Booklocker issued
a class action antitrust lawsuit against Amazon in July, 2008 and WON that
lawsuit in January 2010. Amazon then "retired" the BookSurge name and POD
service and agreed to pay $300,000 in attorney's fees.
Read details here.
However, BookSurge was simply replaced by CreateSpace.
Amazon's CreateSpace POD Option
Today, self-publishers must use Amazon's CreateSpace POD publishing service
if they want their books to show up on the product page as being available for
immediate shipment. Publishing through any other provider, such as Lightning
Source or one of the many self-publishing companies on the Web,
will likely result in the availability date showing as "Ships in 2 to 3 weeks,"
which will effectively kill a book. Thus Amazon is still "ruling the roost"
here. And this is why today's self-publishers are finding
it necessary to publish their book twice—through Lightning Source to get the book
into bookstore and library databases (as well as on Amazon); and through CreateSpace
in order to have the description read, "In stock." (Details at
A Lightning Source Tip
Lightning Source doesn't offer hand-holding services, and they work not with "authors"
but only "independent publishers." So, as the author-publisher, you will be
expected to study their how-to guidelines and send them properly formatted PDF
documents for the book's text and cover. Lacking those skills, you may wish to
consult with Barbara for personal
referrals to a freelance service provider in her network who can not only design
and typeset your book for you, but give you the required PDF documents needed by
both Lightning Source and CreateSpace (the two major POD printers).
===>See also Aaron Shepard's comments about the problem authors have when
submitting a revised edition of a POD book to Lightning Source.
Self-Publishing Companies to Avoid
Mark Levine's book, The Fine Print of Self-Publishing (3rd edition) analyzes,
ranks, and exposes the contracts and services of 45 Self-Publishing Companies.
This book features a list of eight "Outstanding Self-Publishing Companies"
and lists of other publishers he calls
"pretty good" and "just OK," but the most impressive list is the one that names
twenty-one "Publishers to Avoid" and then gives the reasons for this within
the book's text.
Further research on Barbara's part led her to discover that five publishers on
this list (Authorhouse, iUniverse, Tate Publishing, Trafford Publishing, and
Xlibris) are owned by the same company: AUTHOR SOLUTIONS.* What all of them have
in common are many complaints about their services on the Web.
To read these complaints or learn if there are any
complaints about a publisher you're thinking about working with,
simply type the publisher's name, a plus sign, and the word complaints
into a search engine.
You'll be astonished by how many
authors have documented their sad publishing experiences with each of the above
companies. In fact, Author Solutions has more than a million web pages connecting
its name to the word "complaint.") Be careful.
* Believe it or not . . . Author Solutions was
bought by the world-renowned Penguin Group in 2012. Mark Coker, owner of
Smashwords.com, wrote about this
in his July newsletter, wondering why this traditional publisher paid $116
million for a self-publishing company that, as he puts it, "... put the 'V' in
vanity" and earns 2/3 or more of their income 'selling services and books to
authors, not selling authors' books to readers."
If you plan to publish eBooks, be sure to subscribe to Coker's newsletters. Some
remarkable writing and perspective here!
FOR MORE INFORMATION on writer complaints about other self-publishing
companies, click here
to find "Alerts for Writers" and "Warnings about the Schemes, Scams, and Pitfalls That Threaten Writers"
on the website of Science Fiction & Fantasy Writers of America (SFWA).
One book publisher not discussed in Levin's book but exposed in considerable
detail on the SFWA site is Strategic Book Publishing Group and its owner,
Robert M. Fletcher.
Read this article to see the list of publisher names and literary agencies this man has
operated under through the years.
In 2009, Fletcher was sued by the Florida's Attorney General's office for using more than
twenty websites and related companies to fleece unsuspecting authors. What's
said that this company is still operating today under the same name and website
A Cautionary Note about Vanity Presses (Also Known as "Subsidy Publishers")
Vanity publishers feed on people's egos and wallets, often charging outrageous
fees to get a book into print. As Tom and Marilyn Ross explained in their
Guide to Self-Publishing (published in 2004), it's easy to be taken in by one of
these publishers. "The advertising copywriters hired by subsidy publishers are
the best in the business," they say, adding that they could "charm the lard off
a hog." Further, the Rosses point out that, in most cases, after paying
thousands of dollars to print your book, you won't even own it. Instead, you'll
get a "royalty" on any book that happens to be sold, and if you want copies for
yourself, you'll have to buy them. The really bad news is that no one wants to
buy books published by a vanity press, so if you want to sell many books and
make a good profit, look for another way to get into print.
A very good article on vanity presses will be found
here on the website of Science Fiction & Fantasy Writers of America.
And of course you can always just Google
the words "vanity subsidy publishing" to turn up nearly 250,000 Web pages on the topic.
Related Articles by Barbara
Selling Your Book to a Trade Publisher
Author-Publisher Contracts from Internet Book Publishers and Self-Publishing
Book Manuscript Formatting Tips
"In the new world of ebook self-publishing, there are no advances, but your
book never goes out of print either. Thanks to the scalability and efficiency of
online retailing, the digital bits and bytes that comprise your ebook can
happily occupy an online retailer’s shelf forever if you let it. Your book is
immortal. You always have another day to find your next readers. You harvest
your income over time as the book sells.
"Your book-as-an-annuity will very likely produce some level of income for you
for the rest of your life. All you need to do is keep the book in stores."
- from Smashwords' Blog: "The Ebook as Annuity"
Copyright © 2000-2017 by Barbara Brabec. All Rights Reserved.
How to Self-Publish a Book
Your Print-on-Demand (POD)
with Perspective on eBook Editions
by Barbara Brabec
(Last updated November, 2017.
Also see Barbara's Personal Publishing Update here.)
The climate for self-publishing has never been
better than it is right now, and the number of companies on the Web that offer
services to authors who want to self-publish is absolutely amazing. But these
POD publishers are a different breed from the traditional trade book publishers who sell to
bookstores and libraries, and there are many pitfalls awaiting those who elect
to publish with one of them.
I PUBLISHED THREE OF MY BOOKS in the 1980s and 1990s and sold several thousand
copies of each book by mail, making a tidy profit in the process. I actually
produced one of those books with nothing more than sheer determination and an
IBM Selectric typewriter (how I loved those interchangeable balls), but my
readers didn't care how they were produced because the content was solid and the books were
attractively laid out and easy to read. This was in the days when boards had to
be pasted up and sent to the printer for "shooting." Red film had to
be stripped in where pictures were to be inserted, and it was a very tedious and
time-consuming process. Now, everything about the
publishing industry has changed; today's publishers and printers want books
designed and delivered electronically, and there's a whole lot more to this
than is obvious at first glance.
If you have tried to get the attention of a trade publisher and been rejected,
or if you simply prefer the idea of self-publishing so you can be in complete
control of your book from start to finish—and you're prepared to learn how to
market and sell the book/s you plan to publish—then I urge you to give serious
consideration to self-publishing. Since countless books have been written on
this topic, this article merely offers a summary of what I've learned from
first-hand experience, with links to some of the best resources for
self-publishers. (This is a long discussion; you might want to pour a cup of
Skills and Services Needed for Success
EACH POD BOOK PRINTER has its own specifications and requirements
for how text pages and cover images must be designed and submitted for printing, but not all
authors follow them carefully enough or have the technical skills to do what is
required. As I learned from a spokesperson for one of the companies on the Web that helps
authors get into print, there is
always something significantly wrong with most "camera-ready" books they receive
from new authors. "There are errors in spelling, grammar, and punctuation,"
this person said. "Or the author-turned-layout-artist has left floating headers on blank
pages. Or the margins are much too tight. Or the images are too low-resolution
for print. If we published one of these books 'as is,' the book would look
amateurish and no one would buy it."
Although many writers have the computer software to do the design and layout of
their own books, few of them have the skills needed to do a professional
job. For example, no writer, however capable, should publish a book that hasn't
been professionally edited. It is simply impossible for
any writer to see all of his or her own writing errors. Trust me on this.
Although I'm a good editor who can see the errors other writers make, it's
extremely difficult for me to catch all my own typos.
(See my Editing
Checklist for the "why" of this and the kind of errors writers commonly make
that they can easily fix themselves to lower their editing costs.) As a
professional editor who has always edited her own work, I don't have my
books edited by anyone else because I don't want anyone changing anything I've
written. I do, however, rely on others to help me with the proofreading.
Without question, most authors—especially first-time authors—need help with cover design as well as the
interior design of the book itself (selection of typefaces, layout, graphic
illustrations in the text, and so on). Granted, many of the publishing companies on the
Web who are serving the self-publishing industry offer editing and cover design
services, but their cover designs are based on standard templates (nothing
very creative here), and the editing offered is
bare-bones at best—usually nothing more than basic copy editing when in fact
every manuscript by a first-time author I've ever edited has needed a great deal
of content (developmental) editing as well.
A manuscript may be poorly structured or formatted, or have choppy or incomplete
sentences, clumsy dialogue, or paragraphing that
needs improvement. Sometimes quoted material has been used improperly or
illegally. A good freelance editor will bring such matters to the author's
attention, whereas a "quick and dirty" copy edit by a company whose
only concern is how much the author is paying them for this service
couldn't care less. Most of the self-publishing companies on the Web will
publish any manuscript that comes their way, whether it has merit or not.
If you feel you must work with one of the self-publishing companies on the Web—and there are some very
good reasons for doing this—it's still best to work with a freelance editor
whose editing will be far more comprehensive than that of any self-publishing
service you may
be considering. Always remember that if your first book isn't well written and
edited and professionally produced, no one will buy your second.
Printers vs. Publishers
SOMETHING THAT MAY NOT AT FIRST be apparent to beginning authors is that
there is a big difference between a POD printer and a "self-publishing company."
A few outstanding self-publishing companies offer complete publishing and
marketing packages to authors who need help with every aspect of the publication process, but these
packages can get very pricey ($5,000 or more). As a book manuscript
editor and author's consultant, part of my job is to help authors decide how to
publish their book and help them avoid the pitfalls so many other beginning
authors have experienced. I've now helped several first-time authors publish independently by referring them to
trusted freelance service providers in my network—individuals who give their
clients personal attention and a guarantee of satisfaction (something I don't
see any of the self-publishing companies offering). In all cases, their
publication costs have been much less than what they would have paid to any
self-publishing company for the same services.
But saving money is only one of the benefits enjoyed by independent
self-publishers. When you publish independently—doing it all yourself or with
the help of freelancers—YOU are the publisher named in the book (not the self-publishing company).
YOU retain complete control of the book and its ISBN number, and YOU keep
100 percent of the profits and can increase those profits by publishing an eBook edition that
will yield 70 percent of its retail price. You can also get into
the same marketing channels offered by the
Understand that all the self-publishing
companies that call themselves "publishers" are merely
service providers who send their clients' books somewhere else for
printing, usually Lightning Source. If you actually publish through Ingram
Spark or Lightning Source, this will automatically get your book on Amazon,
Barnes and Noble, and into all the bookstore/library databases, plus into Canada
and globally, if you think your book has that broad a market and you set your
wholesale discount high enough. If you publish
through Createspace, you can get broader distribution at an extra fee, but I
don't recommend this. As discussed in a sidebar at left, most authors will get the best distribution by publishing
through both Createspace and Lightning Source, or its branch, IngramSpark, which
is designed for smaller publishers and is less expensive than Lightning Source.
Here's something else you need to understand about marketing and
distribution: Forget about selling a POD book through bookstores.
With few exceptions, such as when an author lives in a
small town that has an independent bookstore, bookstores will not buy or stock a
POD book; they will merely be able to get information about it from Ingram's database files because Ingram
owns Lightning Source. Yes, you might sell a few copies in bookstores, but only if you can motivate people to go into
a bookstore and ask that your book be special-ordered for them. Some
authors buy books at 50% off the retail price and can wholesale to a local
bookstore at 30% and still have a little room for profit. Libraries
may also buy a copy if you can motivate your fans to go into their library and ask them
to obtain a copy for them. But you're talking very small numbers here.
Today's savvy self-publishers accept the fact that the bulk of their sales are going to come
primarily from Amazon and other online bookstores and that, to sell a book online, they must learn how to
promote it on their own website or blog and/or through social networking and word of mouth.
Not all authors want or need to sell a book online, of course, or set up a
website to promote it. A few authors make most of their money from a print book by
going on the road with it or selling it in their workshops or speaking
engagements. In that case, working with an offset printer to print 500-1,000
books at a time may be the best publishing option. This was the route I
took all those years I was publishing some of my own books and selling them by
mail and at home-business events.
The Changing Self-Publishing Scene
MANY THINGS HAVE CHANGED in the world of self-publishing in
the past couple of years, and they seem to be changing all the time now. I've been getting
much of my best information and education on this topic from Aaron Shepard, an author and publisher
that has been blazing a trail for authors around the world for many years. I've
read his three books on self-publishing, and Perfect Pages
and Aiming for Amazon were absolutely invaluable to me in my first
and latest POD publishing experience. The first book enabled me to typeset a beautifully designed book using MS Word 2003; the other
helped me set up an
effective product page on Amazon.
For a "crash course" on how POD publishing has changed and what authors need to know to
successfully publish and sell a print-on-demand book today, read
Shepard's helpful report, "In Pursuit of Plan B:
Dealing with the Reduced Availability of Lightning Source Books on Amazon.com." It explains how Amazon's
800-pound-gorilla approach to the industry has forced authors to adjust their
publishing strategy by publishing a book through two channels with different
wholesale price discounts in order to maximize distribution and sales: (1)
Source to get into Ingram's database, and (2) Amazon's CreateSpace program to
ensure that the book's product page on Amazon says the book is "in stock, ready for immediate shipment." In other words, the rule
now is "publish through CreateSpace . . . or else."
Once you've read Shepard's report, you might consider
setting up a telephone consultation
with me so I can help you figure out how to
apply the information in this article/report, which I realize is
enough to give anyone an "Excedrin headache." Depending on the
kind of book you've written, one publishing route may be better for you
than another, and you may find that doing an eBook edition first to test the
waters is the smartest and most affordable way to begin.
As several authors have attested, I can answer many questions you may have and help you get
started on the self-publishing road that's right for you. (See my 2017 update to
this article at the very end.)
After your book manuscript has been edited and you've decided whether you're going to publish a POD book, eBook
(see note at end), or both, you'll need a good cover design,
and if you're doing a print edition, you'll also need affordable book design/typesetting and
a PDF file conversion service or the software to do this yourself.
I'm not accepting editing jobs now, but I'm still critiquing manuscripts.
Whatever help you may need beyond the services I offer, I can refer you to one
or more skilled individuals in my network who will help you get published
without stress and at an affordable price.
REMEMBER: The primary difference in publishing independently and using one of the
self-publishing services is that as an independent publisher you will buy your
own ISBN number and own it, and the book will show you as the publisher. You'll
also receive all the income from the book instead of a royalty from the
publisher. This is the route I always advise my clients to take.
Researching Individual Companies
and Publishers to Avoid
IF YOU ELECT TO WORK WITH one of the self-publishing companies, you'll
need to do a lot of research. Start by reading the information in the left
column on POD publishers to avoid. Once you find a few companies that you
like the looks of, do a spreadsheet that lists their basic "package" charge (if
there is one), plus what they are charging for all the "extras" (such as
editing, cover design, etc.), and whether they pay royalties, offer marketing
support, or merely print and ship books and "split" the profits with the
author-publisher. To get started, check this
"Incomplete Guide to Print on
Demand Publishers." Just make sure that the company you decide to work with does
not demand exclusive rights to publish and distribute your book. Finally, make
sure you understand all the fine print in the
and know how you can sever this publishing relationship, if need be,
before you sign on the dotted line.
Unfortunately, the self-publishing explosion has given birth to dozens of POD
publishers, some of whom have racked up a lot of complaints from dissatisfied
authors. Some have renamed themselves as a result and continue to operate the
same old way, while others have simply gone out of business, leaving authors in
the lurch. (Read this article
by Angela Hoy, owner of Booklocker, for insight on what happens to authors
when a POD publisher goes out of business.)
Your list of prospective POD publishers should include BookLocker, of course,
because this is one of the "good guys."
This company's stated goal is to "get a quality
book into the market, with the lowest initial investment for an author, and
usually within a month." You might begin by reading
BookLocker's Guide to POD
and eBook Publishing and then check out its print-on-demand "deal evaluator" to
see how BookLocker's cost for a book compares to what other POD publishers may be
offering. This is an important figure if you plan to buy many copies for book
reviewers or private sales.
If you lack skills, the right software, and money, you might want to give
a look. Many kinds of products can be designed and published here with no
upfront costs, and though I haven't tried it, it looks like anyone could publish
an eBook here using their conversion service. The profit potential is good since
authors have complete control of the publishing process, set
their own retail prices, and receive 80 percent of the revenue from sales. But
understand that YOU must generate your own sales of the book. It will show up on
Amazon and Barnes & Noble, but getting people to the product page to buy it is
I've heard some good things about Lulu, but the following note from one of my
editor pals will tell you that it's important to start with a properly edited and formatted
manuscript to get a good-looking book from them. My friend wrote:
"I received a book published by Lulu, and it looks
AWFUL. II has TWO spaces between sentences and a sans serif font for the text
(never should be done) that is almost unreadable, and the leading is all off.
Lines are crammed together like sardines. What a travesty! They also have her
name in the left-page header where the book title should be. Unheard of. Also no
drop caps. There are also straggling lines (widows and orphans) on almost every page.
And the paragraph indent is way too big. I thought Lulu was
better than this. Obviously, I was wrong."
For a positive report on this company, consider that I have in my library
a very handsome book by Chris Irwin
that he published through Lulu as a book he
could sell to generate extra income for his ministry. Chris reported that
this was a perfect publishing solution for him. One of my clients wrote
detailed article about his positive experience with Lulu that will give you
additional perspective on how this company operates. The biggest problem I have with Lulu is that when
there is a question or problem, one has to go into a forum to get an answer—a
perfect example of the old saying, "You get what you pay for."
Other Self-Publishing Resources
YOU COULD SPEND DAYS on Google in search of information on topics related to
POD publishing and eBooks. But you should start with the resources in this article and on the
T/C page of the Writing/Publishing
department to connect with some of the best websites and author
Be sure to visit Dan Poynter's ParaPublishing website. Dan,
considered by many to be the "Father of Self-Publishing," passed away on November
1, 2015, and Mark Coker of Smashwords wrote a remarkable tribute about him and
his contribution to the world of self-publishing.
(Read it here.) It was Dan's Self-Publishing Manual that got me started as
a publisher back in the seventies, and his death was a loss to all writers and
The site went down for a long time, but it appears now that someone is
picking up the pieces and may be offering some services and an updated archive
of information for self-publishers.
Also visit John Kremer's Bookmarket.com site, which features his books, reports,
and consulting services. Of particular interest will be the wealth of information and resource lists
in his "Personal Filing Cabinet"
AND NOW . . . A Few Words
about Publishing an eBook Edition
MOST FIRST-TIME AUTHORS would benefit by publishing an eBook edition before
going to the expense of publishing a print book. First, it's less costly;
second, this gives the author a chance to test the market for the book and
begin to understand the kind of promotion any book needs if it's going to find
Once you decide to do an eBook, you have to have a
properly formatted manuscript and then decide which eBook publisher/distributor you
want to use to maximize distribution. You could work with one of the eBook
publishing services such as BookBaby (which I don't recommend), do it yourself by setting up accounts for
an Amazon Kindle book, B&N's Nook, or Smashwords. But you'll have to spend a lot
of time reading the formatting guides for each eBook publisher because they're
If you need some help in
deciding how you should publish your book—whether in print, as an eBook, or both—I'd be happy to consult with you on
this topic. I know the pros, cons, and challenges of each type of publishing,
and I've now helped several first-time authors publish both print and
eBook editions either by working with them directly, or by referring them to
trusted freelance service providers in my network.
I also have first-hand experience here, having broken into eBook publishing
in 2012 by publishing three of my books as Kindle, Nook, and/or Smashwords
editions. (I have a couple of books on the B&N site for the Nook, but I won't be
publishing there again, for reasons indicated below.) Amazon no longer accepts
.mobi book files generated by Calibre, but I've found their ePub conversions
acceptable to Amazon, which then converts the ePub file to meet their Kindle
Note that Smashwords only accepts a Microsoft Word document, which must be
formatted differently than the ones needed for Kindle and Nook editions. I've
pulled back from publishing on Smashwords, too, for reasons indicated below.
Comparing Amazon, B&N, and Smashwords
AMAZON REMAINS my publishing choice at this stage of the game. I became
disgusted with B&N/Nook's program for a couple of reasons. First, they don't have any of Amazon's marketing savvy or website design skills,
and this is reflected on their poorly designed product pages, which lack sales rank info and
a link on the author's name to a special author's BIO page (called "Author Central" on
Amazon). Worse, B&N has never figured
out how to tie two editions of a book together on the product page, even though
they ask for this information in the publishing process.
Case in point: The eBook edition of my memoir, The Drummer Drives!
was published for the Nook in November 2012, but today this book
still has two product pages on B&N, and anyone landing on one or the
other hasn't a clue that another edition of the book is available. What was
really annoying to me was that on the print book's product page, B&N was
asking readers to request that this book be made available as an eBook long
after I had uploaded the eBook file and told them there was a print edition on
their site. I thus concluded that their right hand didn't know what the left was doing. (The only way to know
if one edition of a book has another edition is to click the author's name on
the product page, which does link to a page that shows all the books that author
has published on the B&N site.)
Unlike Amazon, Barnes & Noble gives the author little control over how
a book's product page looks. All you have to do is compare the difference in the
appearance of the product page for any book on both sites to see what I mean. Only a snippet of
editorial reviews show on B&N, and the overall quality of design just
doesn't look "sharp" to me. In the "Look Inside the Book" feature, Amazon gives a
better preview of the book while the B&N preview is shorter and displayed in two columns, which
is NOT how eBooks are designed. Both sites do offer various apps to enable
buyers to read eBooks on a variety of devices.
And have you noticed that no one writes reviews for the B&N site? The company
a state of transition in 2015, and self-publishers will have to decide if it's
worth their time to create an eBook conversion for this site.
All eBook authors need to promote their eBooks on their own website, blog, or
social networking pages, but a big point against NOOK books is that they don't
allow the author to include external links in them; only hyperlinks to content
within the eBook itself. So to me this completely defeats a main goal of an eBook,
which is to link the reader to the author's website or blog to learn about other books,
products, or services, or just to read related articles or blog posts. At least
Smashwords allows external links.
HOWEVER . . . a big strike against Smashwords is
that authors are offered no digital rights management (DRM) protection. Not
every book needs this, and while it's a Kindle and Nook option, many readers
hate it; yet this is something to consider. (There are many pro/con discussions
about this on the Web.)
Because 90 percent of the books being published on Smashwords today are FREE
or $.99, sales or a book priced higher than $2.99 are likely to be few and far between, so you might want to think
of Smashwords as the back door of your eBook publishing venture unless you have
a powerful presence on the Web and know how to promote a higher priced eBook
through social networking.
The biggest benefit of publishing on Smashwords may be that this gives authors a way to offer
eBooks to folks who have neither a Kindle or a Nook but want to buy a PDF book (one of the many download
options offered by SW), and perhaps print it for reading offline. One could also
promote other books and services, too, by publishing free eBooks that link to
your website or blog where they will find other books available.
November 2017 UPDATE
I DECIDED TO PUBLISH my second
biography and memoir through CreateSpace in November and found
this to be an easy process, given the detailed instructions that guide the novice publisher
through the many screens of their step-by-step publishing process. But . . . I found there were several things a
first-time author with CreateSpace should know and prepare for before they
log in to upload their book files. (I'll write more about
what I learned in my first publishing experience with CS when time
allows.) Meanwhile I'll be happy to consult with authors who have questions about
this publishing option.
I'm currently in the process of publishing a LightningSource
edition to get distribution through brick-and-mortar bookstores in the U.S.,
make my book available in Canada, and also expand my online bookstore distribution worldwide.
I'm in no hurry, however, because I want to reread my proof copy from CS to make sure I caught all the changes
that should be made before I offer it through bookstores. It seems fairly
easy to upload a revised edition of a book to CP, but it's a major and
costly deal to do this after you've published on LightningSource. (I believe
in the old saying, "Haste makes waste.")
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